Monday, June 20, 2016

Shrimp Biofloc Systems: Basic Management Practices

This publication summarizes basic management practices for the majority of farmers raising marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Indiana, US, based on the most current literature available, writes Robert Rode, Purdue University.













Over the past few years an increasing number of marine shrimp enterprises have started up in Indiana. These operations garner attention because of their lower capital costs, their variable scale of production, and shrimp’s high market price.

Based on feedback from a 2014 meeting with Indiana shrimp farmers, it appears that both novice and experienced farmers need more technical knowledge. This publication summarizes basic management practices for the majority of farmers raising marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Indiana based on the most current literature available.

The predominant method of rearing shrimp in Indiana uses the biofloc water treatment system for dealing with the metabolic wastes associated with production. The majority of the discussion to follow deals with this kind of system.

Water Quality
No matter what system is used, shrimp must have good water quality for health and growth.

Shrimp, like other aquatic organisms raised at higher than natural densities, affect the quality of the water they live in. Controlling this environment to maintain optimum conditions reduces stress levels, improves growth, and reduces the risk of mortality. Recommended ranges for water quality parameters for shrimp culture are listed in Table 1. Owner/operators must manage these parameters on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis with either infrastructure and equipment or additions to the rearing system.

A number of water quality testing kits/ probes are available at various prices. Whatever the testing mechanism, the kit must be for saltwater applications. Methods of controlling water quality will be described later in this text.
Biofloc Systems
Biofloc systems remove metabolic wastes from aquatic production systems. They replace biofilters in a classic clear water Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). Bacteria that convert ammonia to nitrate are cultured in the main rearing tank as opposed to in a separate vessel. The bacteria form aggregates or colonies (called bioflocs) suspended in the water column. This is done for several reasons. Eliminating the biofilter reduces costs and saves floor space. In the case of shrimp, the biofloc becomes an additional feed source, which decreases the feed conversion ratio of commercial feeds, again reducing costs.

Shrimp Stocking and Feeding
Shrimp are stocked in biofloc systems at densities ranging from 250 to 500 post-larvae (PLs) per square meter. Production for these systems ranges from 3–7 kg/m² and/ or 3–9 kg/m³. Feed conversions should range from 1.2:1 to 1.6:1. Microbial proteins in the biofloc generally add 0.25–0.5 additional growth units for every one unit of commercial feed. Production parameters for these systems are shown in Table 2.

Shrimp are stocked in single batches of like-size postlarvae (PLs). Feeding is based on calculations of biomass, feed conversion, mortality, weekly gain per individual, and percentage body weight feeding.

Feed rate is adjusted after routine sampling for uneaten feed on the bottom of the tank using a dip net one-half hour after feeding. Less than optimum water quality parameters can also be an indicator that feed is less than optimum. Feed can be dispersed either by hand or with a mechanical device such as a belt feeder. Feeding by hand is best for dispersing the feed over a wide area of the tank allowing all individuals to obtain food. Automated feeders can be used when the operator is not present. Processed feed is still the most important addition for good growth of shrimp even in a biofloc system. Shrimp feed should be purchased from a reputable manufacturer and stored properly.

Diets change over the production cycle with pellet size increasing from approximately 1.5 mm up to 2.5 mm as the shrimp mature. Protein and fat content may remain around 40/9 throughout the growing season. If PLs are smaller than recommended, a smaller particle size and higher protein feed is warranted. Please check with feed and PL suppliers as to recommended starter feeds.

An example for calculating daily feed allowance might be as follows:

A 16 ft. pool approximately 3 ft. deep is stocked with 300 PLs per square meter at an average size of 1 g each. How much would the daily feed allowance be after four weeks? Using values from Table 2, the theoretical biomass of shrimp is found.

Starting size of shrimp (1.0 g) x 4 weeks’ growth (1.5 g/week) = 7 g individual shrimp.

Sampling should confirm this.

Diameter of the tank is 16 ft. and converting to meters, 16 ft. is about 5 m,

A = π (2.5 m)² = 20 m²

Stocking 300 shrimp per m² in 20 m² gives us 6,000 individuals at 7 g each or 42,000 g or 42 kg.

If we assume 10% mortality, that is reduced to 37,800 g or 37.8 kg.

Feeding at 4% of body weight would be 37,800 g x 0.04 = 1,512 g or 1.51 kg per day in week four.

Feed can be parceled out continuously or in multiple feedings per day. The choice has to do with mechanization and management style. Shrimp have small intestinal tracts, so multiple small feedings or continuous feeding of the daily feed allowance is recommended. Feeding done multiple times per day maximizes utilization and uniformity of biological processes of waste treatment.

Biofloc Management
The biofloc in the shrimp-rearing tank should be considered a dynamic living organism and must be managed as such. A description of the biofloc and how to “feed” and support the biofloc follows.

The major component of biofloc is heterotrophic bacteria. The function of the biofloc is to reduce the nitrogenous metabolic waste (ammonia, nitrite) produced by shrimp feeding and production.

Ammonia consumed by heterotrophic bacteria becomes protein, which can then be consumed by shrimp and converted into growth. Heterotrophic bacteria need carbon for ammonia to be assimilated. In addition to the commercial feed, a supplemental source of carbon must be added in order to stimulate production of the heterotrophic bacteria and reduce the nitrogenous waste.

Shrimp feed has a carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of approximately 7–10:1. Heterotrophic bacteria would prefer a ratio of approximately 12–15:1. Simple sugars or starches are added to increase the ratio and promote bacterial growth. Additives have included molasses, sugar, sucrose, and dextrose. Some producers use glycerin. The simpler the sugar, the quicker is the response from the bacteria. Application rates will vary with the protein content of the feed and composition of the carbon source, but a good rule of thumb is that for every 1 kg of feed, about 0.5–1 kg of carbon source is required. Higher protein feed will need higher carbon supplementation. Actual applications must take into consideration the levels of ammonia and nitrites in the water.

The choice of carbon source is dependent on price, availability, ease of application, and efficacy. The carbon source should be diluted prior to application no matter the physical state. Solids should be liquefied so as not to sink directly to the bottom and become unavailable. Some liquids, such as molasses, could sink directly to the bottom as well. Dilution allows for gradual application from a holding/dilution tank through a small aperture valve over time to spread the carbon throughout the tank. This same method can be used for alkalinity applications to be discussed later in the text.

Suspended solids are measured to determine the gross quantity of the biofloc for shrimp production. Suspended solids are measured using Imhoff settling cones. Cones have a one-liter volume. The cone is filled, allowed to settle for 10–20 minutes and reading taken by reading the graduations on the cone. Shrimp biofloc should maintain settleable solids at 10–15 mg/l. Readings should be taken at least once weekly.

Increasing the heterotrophic bacteria population also increases the total oxygen demand of the tank. Heterotrophic bacteria require oxygen for life processes such as ammonia assimilation. Additionally, solids in the water column reduce the ability of that water to hold as much oxygen. Oxygen must be added either through aeration with atmospheric air and perhaps supplemental compressed or liquid oxygen. Popular aeration devices include airlifts, air diffuser stones, venturi aspirators, and water pumps. Supplemental oxygen can be incorporated into venturi aspirators or diffuser stones.

Oxygen additions may be combined with the need to keep biofloc in suspension. Without mixing, heterotrophic bacteria colonies will sink and lose the ability to remove ammonia. Mixing is accomplished with the same devices that add oxygen, namely airlifts, diffuser stones, venturi aspirators, and water pumps. The choice of aeration/ oxygenation methods depends on production level and centralization of equipment. High production levels may require use of pure oxygen supplementation. Use of low-pressure, high-volume air blowers can be sized to cover the needs of multiple tanks driving both airlifts and diffusers. Likewise, water pumps can drive multiple venturi aspirators, but are usually sized for individual large tanks.

With high biofloc respiration rates comes production of high carbon dioxide levels (CO2). Any of the methods of aeration/oxygenation will drive CO2 from the water column. Therefore, CO2 usually is not an issue for shrimp. However, CO2 may build up in the atmosphere, depending on the amount of air exchange through the building. Operators need be aware of this both to protect the personnel in the building from CO2 poisoning and because if building air is used for aeration, CO2 also may ultimately build up in the water column.

High feed rates leading to large biofloc populations can be detrimental to shrimp. Total suspended solids (TSS) over 500 mg/l can irritate the gills and stress shrimp. Controlling high TSS can be accomplished by using foam fractionation and/or some type of settling basin such as a swirl separator, radial flow settler, simple clarifiers, etc. These devices can limit the occurrence of high TSS, but do not remove it entirely. Therefore, any method must be controlled either by timing of operation or flow rate through the devices. Good control of solids can be achieved by turning over the rearing tank water every 3–4 days. Clarifiers are sized to contain 1%–5% of system volume and are operated with a flow rate that gives 20–30 minutes of residency time (Hargreaves).

Removal of TSS can also remove alkalinity and nitrate from the system. Alkalinity can be recovered by allowing sediments to undergo either partial or full anaerobic decomposition. Nitrate can be reduced by removing solids from the system. Anaerobic decomposition has several benefits as well as drawbacks. Not only can alkalinity be recovered, but nitrate can be removed by conversion to nitrogen gas, which is released to the atmosphere.

Anaerobic decomposition needs space. In simple anaerobic decomposition, sludge forms in some portion of the system, is allowed to go anaerobic for a short period of time, and then is removed from the system. An example of this would be emptying a settling basin sporadically. Solids can be removed from the system to a separate container/ vessel, allowing anaerobic conditions to occur and then decanting off the “clean” water after sedimentation of solids. When we use these simple methods, the timing and success of anaerobic decomposition is highly variable. One of the potential dangers of anaerobic digestion is the possible production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Like CO2, in tightly enclosed spaces H2S can be a danger to both shrimp and humans.

Only a portion of the alkalinity tied to heterotrophic bacteria can be recaptured by anaerobic decomposition. Alkalinity must be supplemented by additions of sodium bicarbonate. Alkalinity should be maintained above 150 mg/l and measured at least twice per week. Alkalinity helps maintain pH above 7.0, so if daily pH readings fall below desired levels a quick check of alkalinity and additions of sodium bicarbonate are warranted. As a guide, it is expected that 0.25 kg of sodium bicarbonate would be added for every kilogram of feed entering the system. Researcher Tzachi Samocha has created a good guide for additions of sodium bicarbonate, soda ash, and sodium hydroxide to control alkalinity and pH. As with carbohydrate additions, sodium bicarbonate should be mixed with water and added to the rearing system gradually for efficient uptake.


Reusing Biofloc System
White Shrimp are grown in single batch units. Prior to final complete harvest, the producer must decide what to do with the water from the harvested system. It can be pumped and stored for reuse or discharged to an appropriate site—or some combination of storage and discharge. Likewise, any sludge collected from settling basins or anaerobic respirators must also be disposed of through some means. Land application is not recommended, as few plants can tolerate salt levels in the soil. For possible means of disposal, please contact the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) or the appropriate agency, if outside of Indiana.

There are conflicting research results as to amount of possible heavy metal buildup in biofloc waters and, more importantly, in the flesh of shrimp raised in these waters, which have been used repeatedly for the production of shrimp. In their research, Tzachi Samocha and others found no accumulation of heavy metals in water or culture media stored for reuse. In other recent research, Leffler and Brunson found that arsenic, cooper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc all increased significantly in the water over the course of an 18-week grow-out period. Likewise, arsenic, lead, molybdenum, and selenium increase significantly in the shrimp flesh over the same period. Samocha suggested that preliminary observations show that accumulations may be a factor of feed used. In any case, producers need be aware that the amounts of significant compounds will increase and/or decrease over time in a biofloc system. This may impact the performance of shrimp and their quality.

Source - The Fish Site

147 comments:

  1. Hello Admin,
    Awesome Post! I like writing style, how you describing the topics throughout the post. I hope many web reader will keep reading your post at the end, Thanks for sharing your view.
    Regards,
    Selenium Training in Chennai|Selenium Training|Selenium Course in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  2. A debt of gratitude is in order for requiring some serious energy share this post. It is truly useful. I propose to visit this site to my group members. Please continue posting this way.
    Regards,
    Selenium Training in Chennai | Selenium Testing Training in Chennai | Selenium Course in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  3. I simply want to say I’m very new to blogs and actually loved you’re blog site. Almost certainly I’m going to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely come with great well written articles. Thanks a lot for sharing your blog.
    Video editing institute in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  4. Nice Blog.Thank you for Sharing. I'm working in brave technologies private limited.we are leading cloud erp software solution in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  5. Excellent blog with useful information., Really your shrimp biofloc systems management was so nice., Its nice to read, thanks for share this blog.. Software Testing Training in Chennai | Selenium Training in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  6. Good and Nice article.. it is more informative and impressive blog, thanks for sharing your ideas and views... keep rocks....
    Software Testing Training in chenani | Manual Testing Training in velachery

    ReplyDelete
  7. Really it was an awesome article...very interesting to read..You have provided an nice article....Thanks for sharing..
    Android Training in Chennai
    Ios Training in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  8. Nice article, I loved it. Thanks for sharing and keep sharing.
    personalrekrutierung

    ReplyDelete
  9. Good post and I like it very much. By the way, anybody try this increase app downloads? I do not how to use.

    ReplyDelete
  10. I really enjoyed while reading your article, the information you have delivered in this post was damn good. Keep sharing your post with efficient news.. Automation Anywhere Training in Chennai | RPA Training Institute in Chennai | UI Path Training Institute in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  11. Very interesting blog which helps me to get the in depth knowledge about the technology, Thanks for sharing such a nice blog... Best CCNA Training Institute in Chennai | Best CCNP Training Institute in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  12. Needed to compose you a very little word to thank you yet again regarding the nice suggestions you’ve contributed here.

    blue prism training in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  13. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with a very spectacular possibility to read critical reviews from this site.

    rpa Training in Bangalore


    ReplyDelete
  15. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with a very spectacular possibility to read critical reviews from this site...

    Embedded training in chennai | Embedded training centre in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  16. This information is impressive; I am inspired with your post writing style & how continuously you describe this topic. After reading your post, thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel happy about it and I love learning more about this topic.

    Pega Training in Chennai
    Pega Training

    ReplyDelete
  17. Great information you are shared, Thanks for sharing most valuable information. keep share on
    No.1 UIPath Training Institute in Chennai | No.1 UIPath Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thank you a lot for providing individuals with a very spectacular possibility to read critical reviews from this site.
    Blue Prism Robotic Process Automation in Chennai | Blue Prism Robotic Process Automation in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  19. I love this outfit! It looks so cozy and chic and your jeans are amazing....
    ISTQB Certifications Exams Course in Chennai | QA Testing in Meenambakkam

    ReplyDelete
  20. The provided information’s are very useful to me. It’s a wonderful site for learning. Thank you for sharing this wonderful blog.
    Certified Ethical Hacking Training in Chennai | Blue Prism Training Institute in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  21. This was an nice and amazing and the given contents were very useful and the precision has given here is good.
    Certified Ethical Hacking Training in Chennai | Certified Ethical Hacking Training in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  22. This was an nice and amazing contents which was very useful
    thanks for sharing great information to us
    Blue Prism Training Institute in Chennai | VMWare Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  23. Great information you are shared.Thanks for sharing most valuable information.VMWare Training Institute in Chennai | VMWare Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  24. This was an nice and amazing and the given contents were very useful and the precision has given here is good.
    Selenium Testing Course in Chennai | Selenium Testing Course in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  25. More valuable information you shared in this article which is so useful.Thanks ..
    Java Training Institute in Chennai|Java Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  26. This is Awesome Post.. I liked your style of conveying the information you shared..you described the topics in an easy manner..I hope many web reader will get benefited by this blog..Thanks for sharing your view..
    VLSI Training Institute in Chennai|VLSI Training Institute in kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  27. This is very new information.I loved your blog.This is great article. Thanks a lot for sharing your blog.
    Dot Net Training Institute in Chennai | Dot Net Training Institute in Guindy

    ReplyDelete
  28. This is an awesome article.This is very interesting to read.You created a nice article.Thanks for sharing this information.Regards,
    Web Designing Training Institute in Chennai|Web Designing Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  29. This is an interesting blog which is very useful to get information.Thanks for sharing this information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai|Cloud Computing Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  30. This is great information you shared.Thanks for sharing this valuable information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Android and IOS Training Institute in Chennai|Android and IOS Training Institute in Tiruvallur

    ReplyDelete
  31. This information is impressive.I am inspired with your post.You writing style is good.You described this topic very well.After reading your post,i got many ideas.Thanks for sharing this post.I feel happy and I love learning this topic.Keep updating.Regards,
    Java Training Institute in Chennai|Java Training Institute in Taramani

    ReplyDelete
  32. This is Great information you are shared.Thanks for sharing this useful information.Keep updating.Regards,
    CCNA Training Institute in Chennai|CCNA Training Institute in Saidapet

    ReplyDelete
  33. Pretty article! I found some useful information in your blog, it was awesome to read, thanks for sharing this great content to my vision, keep sharing.
    MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Chennai |MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Madipakkam

    ReplyDelete
  34. This is more valuable information you shared in this article which is very useful.Thanks for this information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Python Training Institute in Chennai|Python Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  35. The information you explained about this is very good.Thanks for this information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Robotics Training Institute in Chennai|Robotics Training Institute in OMR

    ReplyDelete
  36. Really it was an awesome article...very interesting to read.. You have provided a nice article....Thanks for sharing..
    No.1 Automation Anywhere Training Institute in Chennai | No.1 Automation Anywhere Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  37. You gave information about the BIOFLAC systems is very informative.Thanks for this information.Regards,
    Android Training Institute in Chennai | Android Training Institute in Madipakkam

    ReplyDelete
  38. Thanks for this information you shared about the bioflac is very useful.Keep updating.Regards,
    Web Design Training Institute in Chennai | Web Design Training Institute in Keelkattalai

    ReplyDelete
  39. Hi, I am really happy to find such a helpful and fascinating post that is written in well manner. Thanks for sharing such an informative post.
    SEO Training Institute in Chennai | SEO Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  40. This is more valuable information you shared about bio flac.Thanks for this information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Android Training Institute in Chennai | Android Training Institute in Tambaram

    ReplyDelete
  41. The valuable information about the bioflac that you shared in this article which is very useful.Thanks for this information.Keep updating.Regards,
    Android Training Institute in Chennai | Android Training Institute in Adyar

    ReplyDelete
  42. Appreciation for really being thoughtful and also for deciding on certain marvelous guides most people really want to be aware of.
    UIPath Robotic Process Automation in Chennai | UIPath Training in Tambaram

    ReplyDelete
  43. The information about the bioflac systems is very informative.Thanks for this blog.Regards,
    VMWare Training Institute in Chennai | VMWare Training Institute in Thiruvanmiyur

    ReplyDelete
  44. In this site you shared the information of the bio flac is very effective.Thanks and Regards,
    Python Training Institute in Chennai | Python Training Institute in Besant Nagar

    ReplyDelete
  45. In this article you provided good information..This is very useful for me. This is a wonderful site for learning. Thanks for sharing this article..
    No.1 Blue Prism Training Institute in Chennai | No.1 Blue Prism Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  46. Nice blog. Thank you for sharing. The information you shared is very effective for learners I have got some important suggestions from it…
    MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Chennai |MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Tambaram

    ReplyDelete
  47. In this article you provided good information..This is very useful for me. This is a wonderful site for learning. Thanks for sharing this article..
    Best Automation Anywhere Training Institute in Chennai | Best Automation Anywhere Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  48. This article is more efficiency to get the information about the Shrimp Bioflac. Thanks for this information.Regards,
    IOS Training Institute in Chennai | IOS Training Institute in Saidapet

    ReplyDelete
  49. In this Blog you demonstrate the valuable information about the biofloc systems. Thanks for your wonderful information. Regards,
    Outstanding Python Exam Center in Chennai | Outstanding Python Exam Center in St.Thomas Mount

    ReplyDelete
  50. Thank you so much for sharing this worth able content with us. Keep blogging article like this.
    Best Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai |Best Cloud Computing Training Institute in Taramani

    ReplyDelete
  51. Nice Blog… Wonderful Information and really very much useful. Thanks for sharing and keep updating…
    Python Training Institute in Chennai | Python Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  52. Nice Post! It is really interesting to read from the beginning and Keep up the good work and continue sharing like this.
    Hardware and Networking Training in Chennai | Hardware and Networking Training in Taramani

    ReplyDelete
  53. In this website you gave the information about the Biofloc Systems which is very favourable. Thanks for your marvelous information. Regards,
    No.1 Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai | No.1 Cloud Computing Training Institute in Sholinganallur

    ReplyDelete
  54. Nice Post! It is really interesting to read from the beginning & I would like to share your blog to my circles, keep your blog as updated.
    Python Exam Centers in Chennai | Python Exam Centers in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  55. This article contains the information about the Biofloc Systems that is very gainful. Thanks for your awesome information. Regards,
    Excellent Android Training Institute in Chennai | Excellent Android Training Institute in Meenambakkam

    ReplyDelete
  56. Awesome post. Really you are shared very informative concept... Thank you for sharing. Keep on updating...
    C and C++ Training in Chennai | C and C++ Training in Taramani

    ReplyDelete
  57. Your Blog is really awesome with useful and helpful content for us.Thanks for sharing ..keep updating more information.
    C and C++ Training in Chennai | C and C++ Training in Taramani

    ReplyDelete
  58. I found a lot of interesting information here in this site. This is really good post, I’m very thankful and hopeful that you will write many more posts like this one. Regards,
    Top Most IOS Training Institute in Chennai | Top Most IOS Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  59. Thank you so much for sharing this worth able content with us. The concept taken here will be useful for my future programs and I will surely implement them in my study.
    MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Chennai |MCSE&MCSA Training institute in Madipakkam

    ReplyDelete
  60. Really it was an awesome blog...... Very interesting to read, .It’s very helpful for me, Big thanks for the useful info and keep updating…
    CCNP Training Institute in Chennai | CCNP Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  61. Thanks its Great Article… I love to read your articles because your writing style is too good, its is very very helpful for all of us.
    Oracle Training in Chennai | Oracle Training in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  62. Your Blog is really amazing with useful information you are shared here...Thank you for sharing such an informative and awesome post with us. Keep blogging article like this……..
    AWS Training Institute in Chennai | AWS Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  63. Awesome article. It is so detailed and well formatted that i enjoyed reading it as well as get some new information too.

    python training in chennai | python course institute in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  64. Useful information and Please keep updating us..... Thanks for sharing...
    Blueprism Exam Center in Chennai | Blueprism Exam Center in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  65. Thanks for one marvelous posting! I enjoyed reading it;Great post.The information was very useful.Keep the good work goin on!!
    Outstanding Selenium Training Institute in Chennai | Outstanding Selenium Training Institute in OMR

    ReplyDelete
  66. Really I enjoy this blog….. Very nice post… Thanks for sharing and keep updating
    AWS Training Institute in Chennai | AWS Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  67. Great post. wonderful information and really very much useful. Thanks for sharing and keep updating.
    Perfect Python Training Institute in Chennai | Perfect Python Training Institute in Perungudi

    ReplyDelete
  68. Thank you so much for sharing such an amazing post with useful information with us. Keep updating such a wonderful blog….
    Best CCNA Training Institute in Chennai| CCNA Training Center in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  69. Nice blog. Thank you for sharing. The information you shared is very effective for learners I have got some important suggestions from it…
    Best Selenium Training Institute in Chennai|Best Selenium Training Institute in Saidapet

    ReplyDelete
  70. Impressive blog with lovely information. Really very useful article for us thanks for sharing such a wonderful blog...
    Best Dotnet Training Institute in Chennai |Best Dotnet Training Institute in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  71. Nice blog…. with lovely information. Really very useful article for us thanks for sharing such a wonderful blog. Keep updating…..
    Best Linux Training Institute in Pallikaranai| Best Linux Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  72. The knowledge of technology you have been sharing thorough this post is very much helpful to develop new idea. here by i also want to share this.
    Devops Training courses
    Devops Training in Bangalore
    Best Devops Training in pune
    Devops interview questions and answers

    ReplyDelete
  73. This Nice blog is very informative. I’m looking and reading your points is so impressive. Regards,
    Best Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai | Best Cloud computing Training Institute in Chrompet

    ReplyDelete
  74. Nice blog. Thank you for sharing. The information you shared is very effective for learners I have got some important suggestions from it…
    RPA Training in Chennai | RPA Training in Pallikaranai

    ReplyDelete
  75. Wonderful article, thanks for putting this together! This is obviously one great post. Thanks for the valuable information and insights you have so provided here.
    TopMost Python Training Institute in Chennai | TopMost PythonTraining Institute in Madipakkam

    ReplyDelete
  76. Good Post…. Thanks for the useful information it’s very useful to read your blog. Keep blogging article like this.
    Best JAVA/J2EE Training Institute in Perungudi| Best JAVA/J2EE Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  77. Nice blog, really I feel happy to see this useful blog… Thanks for sharing this valuable information to our vision....
    Best AWS Training Institute in Medavakkam| Best AWS Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  78. I am reading your post from the beginning, it was so interesting to read & I feel thanks to you for posting such a good blog, keep updates regularly
    VMware Training Institute in Chennai | VMware Training Institute in Keelkattalai

    ReplyDelete
  79. It's interesting that many of the bloggers to helped clarify a few things for me as well as giving. Most of ideas can be nice content.
    Blue prism Training in Chennai | Blue prism Training in Besant Nagar

    ReplyDelete
  80. Really wonderful post.... My sincere thanks for sharing very useful information to the users... Please continue to share this kind of post
    Best Python Exams Center in OMR| Best Python Certification Exams in OMR

    ReplyDelete
  81. Nice blog, really I feel happy to see this useful blog… Thanks for sharing this valuable information to our vision....
    Software Testing Training in Chennai | Software Testing Training in Saidapet

    ReplyDelete
  82. Great tips and its so easy to understand. Keep updating such a good blog. Regards,
    Best Python Training Institute in Chennai | <a href="https://www.alltechzsolutions.in/python-training-in-chennai.php”> Best Python Training Institute in Naganallur </a>

    ReplyDelete
  83. This blog is really helpful and interesting and well appreciated! Thank you so much for sharing this great article
    TopMost Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai | TopMost Cloud Computing Training Institute in Tambaram

    ReplyDelete
  84. Good Post! Thank you so much for sharing this pretty post, it was so good to read and useful to improve my knowledge.
    Java Training in Chennai | Java Training in Chrompet

    ReplyDelete
  85. Great post.Thanks for one marvelous posting! I enjoyed reading it;The information was very useful.Keep the good work going on!!
    Excellent VMWare Training Institute in Chennai | Excellent VMWare Training Institute in Adyar

    ReplyDelete
  86. Thank you so much for sharing this worth able content with us. The concept taken here will be useful for my future programs and I will surely implement them in my study.

    Perfect and Outstanding Dotnet Training Institute in Chennai| Perfect and Outstanding Dotnet Training Institute in Adyar

    ReplyDelete
  87. This is really too useful and have more ideas from yours. keep sharing many techniques and thanks for sharing the information.
    Graphic Designing Training in Chennai | Graphic Designing Training in Keelkattalai

    ReplyDelete
  88. I would like to say thank you for the amazing details and concepts you are sharing in this.
    Automation Anywhere Training in Chennai | Automation Anywhere Training in Ashok Nagar

    ReplyDelete
  89. Wonderful blog… You provided very interesting information here. I feel happy to read this post. I hope that you will write many posts like this… Thanks for sharing and Keep updating…..
    Python Training Institute in Chennai | Python Training Institute in Velachery

    ReplyDelete
  90. It is really very excellent blog; I find all of your blogs were amazing and awesome. The way to get expert tips from everyone, not only I like that posts all peoples like that post.
    Perfect Python Exam Center in Chennai | Perfect Python Exam Center in Thiruvanmiyur

    ReplyDelete
  91. Thank you so much for sharing this worth able content with us. Keep blogging article like this.
    UIPath Training in Chennai | UIPath Training in Kanchipuram

    ReplyDelete
  92. This is really too useful and have more ideas from yours. keep sharing many techniques. eagerly waiting for your new blog and useful information. keep doing more.
    Ethical Hacking Training in Chennai | Ethical Hacking Training in Thiruvanmiyur

    ReplyDelete
  93. Very good and informative article. Thanks for sharing such nice article, keep on updating such good articles.
    Android Training in Chennai | Android Training in Porur

    ReplyDelete
  94. Thanks for the informative article. This is one of the best resources I have found in quite some time. Nicely written and great info. I really cannot thank you enough for sharing.

    angularjs Training in bangalore

    angularjs Training in bangalore

    angularjs online Training

    angularjs Training in marathahalli

    angularjs interview questions and answers

    ReplyDelete
  95. I have read your blog its very attractive and impressive. I like it your blog.
    Java Training in Chennai | Java Training in St.Thomas Mount

    ReplyDelete
  96. Thanks for one marvelous posting! I enjoyed reading it; you are a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and may come back someday. I want to encourage that you continue your great posts.
    Best Cloud Computing Training Institute in Chennai | Best Cloud computing Training Institute in Besant Nagar

    ReplyDelete
  97. Nice and good article. It is very useful for me to learn and understand easily. Thanks for sharing your valuable information and time. Please keep updating.
    AWS Training Institute in Chennai | AWS Training Institute in Pallavaram

    ReplyDelete
  98. It is really very excellent blog; I find all of your blogs were amazing and awesome. The way to get expert tips from everyone, not only I like that posts all peoples like that post.
    Microsoft Azure Training Institute in Chennai | Microsoft Azure Training Institute in Porur

    ReplyDelete
  99. Thanks for one marvelous posting! I enjoyed reading it; you are a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and may come back someday. I want to encourage that you continue your great posts.
    Android Training Institute in Chennai | Android Training Institute in Meenambakkam

    ReplyDelete
  100. Thanks for sharing this valuable information.. I saw your website and get more details..Nice work...
    Best Software Testing Training Institute in Chennai | Best Software Testing Training Institute in T.Nagar

    ReplyDelete
  101. This Nice blog is very informative. I’m looking and reading your points is so impressive. Regards,
    Linux Training in Chennai | Linux Training in T.nagar

    ReplyDelete
  102. I am reading your post from the beginning, it was so interesting to read & I feel thanks to you for posting such a good blog, keep updates regularly.
    ISTQB Certification Course in Chennai | ISTQB Certification Course in Sozhinganallur

    ReplyDelete