Thursday, August 11, 2016

Manage bacteria in shrimp culture


Bacteria are present everywhere in the pond ecosystem and play an important role in maintaining the health and productivity of shrimp farming. Management systems contribute to reducing microbial hazards and create success for the crop.

Microflora
From the environment to the pond water shrimps intestines, bacteria are present everywhere. Pond is a complex ecosystem, related to the organic matter and nutrient reuse or removal, especially nitrogen. Together with phytoplankton, bacteria that dominate this ecosystem. The microbial community in the pond is part of the food chain, contributing to biological processes and plays an important role in controlling sanitation pond. However, a change in the balance of this ecosystem can lead to excessive growth of unwanted bacteria, including potential pathogens or affect the nitrogen cycle and the elimination organic substances. Since then, the impact on the health and productivity of shrimp ponds.

For bacteria in the intestinal system of shrimp, so far there is little research on their role in the shrimp. But the findings so far in the addition of microorganisms in the intestinal tract of shrimp has supported a fundamental role as intermediary in improving the health of the shrimp. Especially the different studies showed that probiotics in foods have the ability to adjust intestinal microbiota of shrimp, a positive impact on reducing stress, antioxidant and improves the lives of shrimp.

The link between environmental bacteria and intestinal bacteria are interacting with each other due to normal activity of the bacteria through the digestive activities, food enters the intestine, water moves through the mouth, by temporary resident bacteria and other factors such as the shape, structure outside of the pet, the digestive system structure, diet, living conditions and crop host (according to Harris, 1993).

Management of bacteria in the pond system
The bioremediation concept has been widely used in aquaculture in the past decades with the aim of facilitating the management of organic compounds and nitrogen accumulates in the culture system (water quality and bottom). Selection criteria a bacterium for use in ponds including potentially compete; adapt to different environments (salinity, dissolved oxygen ...); safe (no antibiotic resistance genes and toxins); for antibacterial activity; have the ability to remove nitrogen and organic matter. In shrimp ponds, often using microorganisms groups antagonistic or compete with food pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria Bacillus sp, Bacillus licheniformis ... Group improve environmental quality as bacteria Nitrosomonas , Nitrobacter , Actinomyces , Bacillus , Rhodobacter sp, Rhodospirillum , Rhodopseudomonas viridis ...

The use of beneficial bacteria to manage the pond microflora in effect: clean pond bottom, decompose organic material absorbed determine algae, reducing the increase in the mud pond;inhibits the activity and growth of harmful bacteria; metabolism of toxic gases harmful to shrimp as NH 3 , NO 2 , H 2 S ...; help stabilize the pond algae and water color; some bacteria when used will increase the oxygen content, pH stability and environmental indicators in the pond. Or use Biofloc culture system is also capable of successfully managing flora in the pond.

Management of intestinal microflora
According to research by Chaiyapechara et al, 2011 showed that intestinal bacterial populations prawn include: Like the dominant bacteria in the gut of shrimp include Vibrio , Photobacterium ,Aeromonas , Propionigenium (industry Fusobacteria ). Other varieties such as Actinomyces ,Anaerobaculum , Halospirulina , Pseudomonas , Mycoplasma and Shewanella ; compulsory anaerobes as Propionigenium and Fusibacter also been found. According to research by Johnson et al, 2008, on the said vannamei shrimp's gut before recirculation tank group of bacteria including Mycobacterium ,Propionibacterium , and Desulfocapsa predominate; hindgut with group Vibrio dominate.

Gut is almost the most important parts for shrimp and objectives for the dangerous disease. By body composition shrimp is very simple and very susceptible to germs. Currently, the disease appears largely derived from the intestinal tract as feces white, early mortality syndrome (EMS) ... At the time of the use of antibiotics increasingly limited, the management system an intestinal bacteria actively through the addition of the feed composition is a promising approach. According to research by the scientists, the addition of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract to help digest the food you eat shrimp, nutrient absorption, toxins restrict, inhibit harmful bacteria, protecting the health of shrimp feeding on shrimp and help prevent disease such as white shit ... raise the survival rate. Bacteria group used for improving intestinal shrimp by mixing into food usually bacteria Lactobacillus , Bacillussp, Saccharomyces ... Probiotics is recommended for use in all phases of shrimp farming, arrested from the seed to grow-out time. Because studies have shown that the seed is produced based on the use of probiotics regularly survival rate and a higher growth of the seed is affected by the use of antibiotics or chemicals . At the same time, the beneficial bacteria also secrete enzymes capable of splitting the majority of shrimp into single substance that is easily absorbed nutrients, anti-peptic disorders of shrimp.

Shrimp farming is currently facing many challenges due to pressure from the farming environment quality and food demand is increasing. The use of additional flora in animal feed and the environment through measures to manage and control the bacteria at the bottom of the pond system, in the country will help to optimize the performance of shrimp, and shrimp as a whole comprehensive and sustainable.

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